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Dr. Aarati P Tamhane
BHMS

Gold Medalist



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Dr.   Samuel Hahnemann quotes.

It is the Physician’s highest & unique calling to take away sickness from human beings,
this is called Healing
”.

Mental Retardation

Definition   

Mental retardation is a condition diagnosed before age 18 that includes below-average general intellectual function, and a lack of the skills necessary for daily living.

Causes   

Mental retardation affects about 1 - 3% of the population. There are many causes of mental retardation, but doctors find a specific reason in only 25% of cases.

A family may suspect mental retardation if the child's motor skills, language skills, and self-help skills do not seem to be developing, or are developing at a far slower rate than the child's peers. Failure to adapt (adjust to new situations) normally and grow intellectually may become apparent early in a child's life. In the case of mild retardation, these failures may not become recognizable until school age or later.

An assessment of age-appropriate adaptive behaviours can be made using developmental screening tests. The failure to achieve developmental milestones suggests mental retardation.

The degree of impairment from mental retardation varies widely, from profoundly impaired to mild or borderline retardation. Less emphasis is now placed on the degree of retardation and more on the amount of intervention and care needed for daily life.

Risk factors are related to the causes. Causes of mental retardation can be roughly broken down into several categories:

  • Infections (present at birth or occurring after birth)
    • Congenital CMV
    • Congenital rubella
    • Congenital toxoplasmosis
    • Encephalitis
    • HIV infection
    • Listeriosis
    • Meningitis
  • Chromosomal abnormalities
    • Chromosome deletions (cri du chat syndrome)
    • Chromosomal translocations (a gene is located in an unusual spot on a chromosome, or located on a different chromosome than usual)
    • Defects in the chromosome or chromosomal inheritance (for example, fragile X syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome)
    • Errors of chromosome numbers (such as Down syndrome)
  • Environmental
    • Deprivation syndrome
  • Genetic abnormalities and inherited metabolic disorders
    • Adrenoleukodystrophy
    • Galactosemia
    • Hunter syndrome
    • Hurler syndrome
    • Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
    • Phenylketonuria
    • Rett syndrome
    • Sanfilippo syndrome
    • Tay-Sachs disease
    • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Metabolic
    • Congenital hypothyroid
    • Hypoglycemia (poorly regulated diabetes mellitus)
    • Reye syndrome
    • Hyperbilirubinemia (very high bilirubin levels in babies)
  • Nutritional
    • Malnutrition
  • Toxic
    • Intrauterine exposure to alcohol, cocaine, amphetamines, and other drugs
    • Lead poisoning
    • Methylmercury poisoning
  • Trauma (before and after birth)
    • Intracranial hemorrhage before or after birth
    • Lack of oxygen to the brain before, during, or after birth
    • Severe head injury
  • Unexplained (this largest category is for unexplained occurrences of mental retardation)

Symptoms   

  • Continued infantile behaviour
  • Decreased learning ability
  • Failure to meet intellectual developmental markers
  • Inability to meet educational demands at school
  • Lack of curiosity

Note: Changes to normal behaviours depend on the severity of the condition. Mild retardation may be associated with a lack of curiosity and quiet behaviour. Severe mental retardation is associated with infantile behaviour throughout life.

Complications   

Complications vary. They may include:

  • Inability to care for self
  • Inability to interact with others appropriately
  • Social isolation

Tests   

  • Abnormal Denver developmental screening test
  • Adaptive behaviour score below average
  • Development way below that of peers
  • Intelligence quotient (IQ) score below 70 on a standardized IQ test.

 

 


  1. Diseases & Symptoms
     


    For any queries, please write to Dr Aarati on below mentioned Email ids.

    draaratitamhane@gmail.com
    &
    info@homoeopathyheal.com

    After receiving your queries a case history form will be forwarded to you which has to be filled in detail.

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